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Data Security – The Increasing Danger Of Vishing Attacks – Data Protection

If you own a phone, you have probably received a shady call from
an unknown number trying to obtain your private information. What
you may not know is that these calls are becoming increasingly
harmful for businesses.

What is a Vishing Attack?

Vishing attacks (or voice phishing attacks) typically involve a
scammer seeking to gain confidential information by pretending to
be someone else.1 For example, a scammer may introduce
themselves as someone from a bank, the government, or a
company’s IT department. The goal of a typical vishing attack
is to obtain personal information that will unlock further
opportunities, such as the ability to steal an individual’s
money or identity or deploy a ransomware attack on a company’s
computer system.2

The Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA“) has
often been impersonated in vishing attacks. CRA scam alerts include transcripts of some of
these phishing attempts. These scammers have deployed scare
tactics, such as telling victims that criminal cases have been
initiated against them, liens will be placed on their assets, or
unknown legal action is impending.3

Vishing on the Rise

In recent years, vishing attackers have refined their methods to
use increasingly sophisticated tools to convince their victims to
divulge information. This includes manipulating their caller ID to
display a legitimate number and voice cloning, which uses machine
learning algorithms and voice changer technology to mimic a trusted
individual’s voice.4

In January 2021, the FBI issued a private industry notification
pointing to the increased number of targeted vishing attacks
seeking access to corporate networks.5 Specifically
there has been a rise in hybrid vishing attacks, which combine
targeted phishing attacks (also known as spearphishing) with
vishing.6 The effectiveness of hybrid vishing attacks is
more concerning – in tests conducted by IBM, it was
demonstrated that hybrid vishing attacks were three times more
effective than spearphishing alone, producing a 53.2% click

Prevention and Mitigation Measures

To better protect you and your company from these threats,
agencies such as the Canadian Centre for Cyber Security, the FBI
and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services have issued
guidance with the following tips for individuals:

  • Use built-in smartphone spam protection

  • Attempt to block automated calls or calls from unknown numbers;

  • Exercise caution when faced with suspicious behavior such as:

    • callers seeking sensitive information;

    • scare tactics or high pressure from callers;

    • offers that sound too good to be true; or

    • signs that are uncharacteristic of legitimate corporations and
      government agencies, such as calls with poor audio quality, or
      callers with a robotic tone or unnatural rhythm to their

Companies should train staff on vishing attacks, new kinds of
phishing campaigns and how to respond if targeted.10 It
is also good practice to periodically test employees with simulated
vishing attacks, to identify when further training or awareness
campaigns may be needed. However, since it is impossible to reduce
the risk of a successful vishing attack entirely, it is key for
companies to use a layered security approach. In particular,
companies should consider implementing the following mitigation

  • Implement multi-factor authentication (MFA) for accessing
    employees’ accounts in order to minimize the chances of an
    initial compromise.11 One-time passwords are preferred
    over push notifications (which are sometimes accepted due to MFA
    fatigue, without knowing the source of the

  • Grant new employees access on a least privilege

  • Actively scan and monitor networks for unauthorized access or

  • Utilize network segmentation to break up one large network into
    multiple smaller networks to better control the flow of network
    traffic;15 and

  • Issue two accounts to administrators: one account with admin
    privileges to make system changes and another account for email,
    deploying updates, and generating reports.16


1. Canadian Centre for Cyber Security, “What is Voice Phishing (Vishing)?” (July
25, 2022). [What is Vishing]; The text message
equivalents are referred to as “smishing” attacks (SMS
phishing), and the “quick-response” (QR) code equivalents
are “Quishing” attacks (QR code phishing).

2. Canadian Centre for Cyber Security, “Don’t take the bait: Recognize and avoid
phishing attacks – ITSAP.00.101
” (August 2022).
[Don’t Take the Bait]

3. Government of Canada, “Sample telephone scams” (May 17,

4. What is Vishing, s.v. “How does a vishing scam

5. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Cyber Division,
Private Industry Notification
” (14 January 2021). [FBI Private
Industry Notification]

6. Rodika Tollefson, “Spearphishing meets vishing: New multi-step attack
targets corporate VPNs
” (December 15, 2020).

7. IBM, “X-Force Threat Intelligence Index 2022
(February 2022) at page 5.

8. What is Vishing, s.v. “Tips for spotting and
avoiding vishing scams”.

9. Don’t Take the Bait, s.v. “Something may be
phishy if”.

10. What is Vishing, s.v. “Tips for spotting and
avoiding vishing scams”.

11. FBI Private Industry Notification, at page

12. Vishing on the Rise, at page 2.

13. Supra Note 11.

14. ibid

15. ibid

16. ibid

The foregoing provides only an overview and does not
constitute legal advice. Readers are cautioned against making any
decisions based on this material alone. Rather, specific legal
advice should be obtained.

© McMillan LLP 2021

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