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Public shaming of thieves could lead to civil claims against businesses – Crime


Shopkeepers unwilling to confront thieves despite huge cost to

Shoplifting, theft, robbery and vandalism cost Australian
businesses up to $9 billion a year, but the National Retail
Association says only 20 per cent of thefts are reported to

That is largely because confronting thieves pocketing goods in
your store could lead to confrontation, and managers don’t want
to endanger their staff. Police can’t arrest unless the
suspected thief is identified, and few thieves volunteer their name
when stopped by store employees.

“Wall of shame” for public shaming of

Now some managers are taking justice into their own hands by
putting up a “wall of shame” at the store entrance, with
photos taken from the shop’s CCTV of people the store says
could be shoplifters.

The notices usually ask if anyone knows who these people are and
post a warning that these people are suspected of shoplifting and
won’t be allowed into the store again.

Some managers are going a step further, posting videos from
their store’s CCTV on social media of a person they say was
spotted shoplifting and asking the public to identify them.

Potential civil claims arising from public shaming

However, managers should be warned that such vigilante action
could lead to civil claims against the store.

Unless the person they have publicly portrayed as being a
shoplifter or thief has actually committed an offence, then they
have the right to the presumption of innocence. Publicly
identifying them as a thief could amount to defamation.

Just because the manager has a CCTV image that appears to
capture a theft in their store, such as someone stuffing something
under their coat, it is a long step under the law to identify them
as guilty.

A court generally won’t find a person guilty of theft unless
it can be established it was an intentional act. The prosecution
would need to prove there was a certain amount of intention to

Possible defences to charge of stealing

The accused could argue they intended to pay on the way out,
that they were just putting the item in their pocket as they
didn’t have a bag. They may have a mental health condition. If
they are underage, their identity is protected under law.

If there is no conviction, the manager could be faced with civil
action by the person who was falsely held up publicly to be a

It is not against the law to post such images or make public
appeals for help to identify someone, but managers should have a
legal expert check the wording of the notice to avoid a potential
claim for damages for defamation.

It would be ironic, and infuriating, if a manager ended up
having to pay tens of thousands, even hundreds of thousands of
dollars in defamation to someone they believed had been
shoplifting, but no charges were laid, or the offence could not be
proved in court.

Under the Defamation Act 2005 a person must not
publish matter defamatory of another living person if they know the
matter to be false, or with intent to cause serious harm to the
victim. This includes a noticeboard in a shop and comments on the
internet. Courts have awarded large sums in damages to a
person’s reputation.

A man in Victoria who was held by security staff at Myer who
suspected he had shoplifted was awarded $10,000 for false
imprisonment (please see Myer Stores Ltd v Soo).

Police advice on handling shoplifting

Businesses should call police about theft or shoplifting and
present them with any photo or video evidence.

If a store wants to search bags at the exit, they must post
signs at the entrance saying it is a condition of entry. Employees
must ask a person to open their bag, but they cannot force them to
do so.

You could be charged with assault if staff conduct a bag check
without permission. This includes forcing a customer to open their
bag, or physically touching a customer. Employees can’t touch
anything in the bag.

Under law, if you refuse to show what’s in your bag, the
store can’t force you to do so, but it can tell you never to
return to the store.

Staff can’t detain a shoplifting suspect, as that would be
imprisonment. Call the police instead.

Tony Mitchell

Defamation claims

Stacks Law Firm

The content of this article is intended to provide a general
guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought
about your specific circumstances.


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